NO2 & Air Pollution Tracking by NASA

空气污染和二氧化氮的监测及趋势(2005 – 2014)

美国宇航局过去十年对全球195个城市的空气污染监测发现,欧美日本等地空气质量有所改善,但中国、印度及中东空气污染面积有所扩大。这里被监测的污染物是二氧化氮,主要来自汽车尾气、发电厂及工业活动的排放。二氧化氮可以很快变成地面层臭氧,是城市中雾霾的主要成分之一。如下图,中国的二氧化氮高浓度覆盖面积扩大最为明显(红色为浓度5000万亿分子/立方厘米):【点这里阅读英文原文

NO2 concentrations in Asia between 2005 and 2014, with the blue indicating 0 and the red indicating 5,000 trillion molecules per cubic centimeters (images: NASA)

NO2 concentrations in Asia between 2005 and 2014, with the blue indicating 0 and the red indicating 5,000 trillion molecules per cubic centimeters; China has witnessed an expansion of high NO2 pollution. [Images: NASA]

Using new, high-resolution global satellite maps of air quality indicators, NASA scientists tracked air pollution trends over the last decade in various regions and 195 cities around the globe. According to recent NASA research findings, the United States, Europe and Japan have improved air quality thanks to emission control regulations, while China, India and the Middle East, with their fast-growing economies and expanding industry, have seen more air pollution.

Scientists examined observations made from 2005 to 2014 by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard NASA’s Aura satellite. One of the atmospheric gases the instrument detects is nitrogen dioxide, a yellow-brown gas that is a common emission from cars, power plants and industrial activity. Nitrogen dioxide can quickly transform into ground-level ozone, a major respiratory pollutant in urban smog. Nitrogen dioxide hotspots, used as an indicator of general air quality, occur over most major cities in developed and developing nations. Read more…

 

好消息是:北京、上海和广州三大城市及周边的二氧化氮浓度有所下降(图中蓝色的三个点/块),最大降幅达到40%,而中国北部地区浓度升高20-50%不等。如下图:

The trend map of East Asia shows the change in NO2 concentrations from 2005 to 2014, with apparent drops in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou metropolitan areas (blue). [Image: NASA]

China, the world’s growing manufacturing hub, saw an increase of 20 to 50 percent in nitrogen dioxide, much of it occurring over the North China Plain. Three major Chinese metropolitan areas — Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta — saw nitrogen dioxide reductions of as much as 40 percent.

 

Here below is a video from NASA about the human fingerprint on global air quality:

 


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