Data & Graphics

Heat Island Effect Thermal Imaged in NYC

Michael Data & Graphics, Photo July 17, 2016

热成像拍摄纽约热岛效应及雾霾的增温效果

The Statue of Liberty trapped in smog-generated heat

50F = 10C, 68F = 20C, 86F = 30C

纽约的这点雾霾(以上右图)对于见过世面的国人来说最多也就是点雾吧(这里看到的所谓的霾应该大多是臭氧)。即使就这点雾霾,也令地表空气和地面温度陡然升高,比海水高出近20华氏度,专家说,这些颗粒物和水汽会散发红外波段的“长波热辐射”,地面在阳光和这些辐射的共同作用下,温度就比周围环境高出许多。幸好雾霾在北京的夏天不是爆发季。拍摄者是 Nickolay Lamm,是几年前的一个7月用热成像相机在纽约拍摄的。

The water remains relatively cool (blue) all day while the Statue of Liberty warms up when exposed to the sun (red). A haze layer exits near the ground, and the particles and droplets in this layer emit “longwave thermal radiation” in the far infrared portion of the spectrum. The haze closest to the ground is relatively warm (red, orange), while the temperature decreases with increasing altitude (yellow to green to blue). The ground is heated both by sunlight and the longwave radiation emitted by the atmosphere. Haze layers over urban areas increase the longwave heating, especially overnight, and promote warmer temperatures.

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NO2 & Air Pollution Tracking by NASA

Michael Animation, Data & Graphics, Photo, Video July 15, 2016

空气污染和二氧化氮的监测及趋势(2005 – 2014)

美国宇航局过去十年对全球195个城市的空气污染监测发现,欧美日本等地空气质量有所改善,但中国、印度及中东空气污染面积有所扩大。这里被监测的污染物是二氧化氮,主要来自汽车尾气、发电厂及工业活动的排放。二氧化氮可以很快变成地面层臭氧,是城市中雾霾的主要成分之一。如下图,中国的二氧化氮高浓度覆盖面积扩大最为明显(红色为浓度5000万亿分子/立方厘米):【点这里阅读英文原文

NO2 concentrations in Asia between 2005 and 2014, with the blue indicating 0 and the red indicating 5,000 trillion molecules per cubic centimeters (images: NASA)

NO2 concentrations in Asia between 2005 and 2014, with the blue indicating 0 and the red indicating 5,000 trillion molecules per cubic centimeters; China has witnessed an expansion of high NO2 pollution. [Images: NASA]

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GIFs: Wuhan’s Shrinking Lakes

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive, Photo July 11, 2016

动图组:武汉被吞噬的湖泊

沙湖曾是武汉市仅次于东湖的第二大“城中湖”,2000年以来被房地产开发潮不断蚕食;卫星图显示2000.11.1 - 2.16.2.20

沙湖曾是武汉市仅次于东湖的第二大“城中湖”,2000年以来被房地产开发潮不断蚕食;卫星图显示2000.11.1 – 2016.2.20 【新华社原文

This year’s rainy season and floods have wrecked havoc on the city of Wuhan, which was home to 127 lakes in its urban areas. Now the city has 38 lakes remaining. Even though this many have survived the dramatic urbanization and land reclamation over the past few decades, they have most likely shrunk a great deal. With many new neighborhoods on low-lying lands that used to be lakes, the battle against floods this year is a particularly difficult one. Here below are a couple of examples viewed from space, thanks to Google Earth and those who care to find these images. [Tap on the link in the above image’s caption for original Xinhua post in Chinese language.]

Shahu Lake (or literally translated as sandy lake) used to be the second largest lake after the East Lake in Wuhan City. Since 2000, due to the encroaching real estate development and urbanization, the lake has been divided by a road and surrounded by high-rise buildings (above). Read More

7.5 This Week in Numbers

Michael Data & Graphics July 4, 2016

From Ian Bremmer via LinkedIn:

 

Ramadan attacks, fatalities so far
Baghdad 125
Orlando 49
Istanbul 45
Yemen 43
Dhaka 28
Lebanon 9
Jordan 7
Paris 2

2015 Terrorism
MidEast/N Africa: 6,000 incidents, 40% of total
South Asia: 4,600, 31%
W Europe: 321, 2%
N America: 62, 0.4%

Saudi labor force participation rate
Women: 18%
Men: 65%
Overall: 41%

Number of Trade Negotiators
UK: 40
EU: 550
Britain will have to hire foreign trade negotiators to negotiate on their behalf. #Irony

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GIFs: Shale Revolution & Scars in Texas

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive June 23, 2016

Recently I took an eco-advocacy film to China. It’s called Dear President Obama, and is narrated by Mark Ruffalo. It calls for President Obama to reverse the “drill, baby, drill” on the so-called “clean” natural gas and visit many of the victims who have fallen ill in the wake of millions of fracking sites around the country. (Film trailer below)

I am a proud resident of New York, which seems to be the only state that has banned fracking in the U.S. Yet the industry has already wrecked havoc, in places like Texas that accounts for almost 30% of the national natural gas production. The scars left behind, in rectangle boxes in maps below, are disturbingly sad, to say the least:

In the early 2000s, the area east of Cotulla, Texas, was dry, sleepy shrubland. By 2015, a bustling network of roads and rectangular drill pads had completely transformed the landscape. The pair of satellite images below shows how much the landscape has changed. Landsat 5 acquired the upper image on December 17, 2000; Landsat 8 captured the lower image on December 18, 2015.

In the early 2000s, the area east of Cotulla, Texas, was dry, sleepy shrubland. By 2015, a bustling network of roads and rectangular drill pads had completely transformed the landscape. The pair of satellite images below shows how much the landscape has changed. Landsat 5 acquired the upper image on December 17, 2000; Landsat 8 captured the lower image on December 18, 2015. Full post on NASA Earth Observatory

A bigger picture around Cotulla, Texas between 2000 and 2015. Full post on NASA Earth Observatory

A bigger-picture view around Cotulla, Texas between 2000 and 2015. Full post on NASA Earth Observatory

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GIFs: Indian Drought Now and Flood 10 Years Ago

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive, Photo June 17, 2016

India is too hot, literally. This, again, comes from NASA Earth Observatory:

Monsoon rains began arriving across India in early June 2016. For many Indians, it was not a moment too soon. After three underwhelming monsoon seasons, broad swaths of the country have been gripped by drought. An estimated 330 million people have been affected by depleted water supplies.

Of all of India’s reservoirs, Panchet Hill in Jharkhand was among the lowest compared to the 10-year average. In the first week of June 2016, the reservoir stood at 4 percent of capacity; the average for June is 40 percent.

Of all of India’s reservoirs, Panchet Hill in Jharkhand was among the lowest compared to the 10-year average. In the first week of June 2016, the reservoir stood at 4 percent of capacity; the average for June is 40 percent. These two images were taken on June 10, 2015 and June 12, 2016

This is what it looks like at night on June 17, 2016, with much of India hotter than China’s biggest dessert in Xinjiang.

Some parts of India were as hot as 45 degrees Celcius in the evening of June 17, 2016, via earth.nullschool.net

Some parts of India were as hot as 45 degrees Celcius in the evening of June 17, 2016, via earth.nullschool.net

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GIF: Global Temperatures, Dubai Palm Island Building

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive, Photo, Video May 27, 2016

Month after month, the world’s temperature records have been reset over and over again. And NASA Earth Observatory archive has it all. First one below on the rising temperatures on a global scale over more than a century, decade by decade with latest one of 2005-2014; second one about the first artificial palm island Dubai built on a beachfront.

According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade.

According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade.

 

The first Palm Island constructed was Palm Jumeirah, and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite observed its progress from 2000 to 2011. In these false-color images, bare ground appears brown, vegetation appears red, water appears dark blue, and buildings and paved surfaces appear light blue or gray.

The first Palm Island constructed was Palm Jumeirah, and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite observed its progress from 2000 to 2011.
In these false-color images, bare ground appears brown, vegetation appears red, water appears dark blue, and buildings and paved surfaces appear light blue or gray.

Dubai, in early-morning hours, still registered temperatures in the 30s on May 28, 2016, only cooler than India.

Dubai, in early-morning hours, still registered temperatures in the 30s on May 28, 2016, only cooler than India, via earth.nullschool.net

5.23 This Week in Numbers

Michael Data & Graphics, Photo May 24, 2016

From Ian Bremmer via LinkedIn:

For the first time, Trump ahead of Clinton in national poll average.

Who is most concerned about the South China Sea?
1 Philippines
2 Vietnam
3 Japan
4 South Korea
5 Australia (!)

GIF: Amazon Deforestation & Mountaintop Mining

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive, Photo May 23, 2016

Another couple of pieces of gem from NASA Earth Observatory’s archive, first about the catastrophic mountaintop mining happening in West Virginia (1984-2015) and the other about deforestation (2000-2012) in the Amazon.

This time-series of images of a surface mine in Boone County, West Virginia, illustrates why this controversial mining method is also called “mountaintop removal.” Based on data from Landsat 5, 7, and 8, these natural-color images document the growth of the Hobet mine as it moves from ridge to ridge between 1984 to 2015.

This time-series of images of a surface mine in Boone County, West Virginia, illustrates why this controversial mining method is also called “mountaintop removal.” Based on data from Landsat 5, 7, and 8, these natural-color images document the growth of the Hobet mine as it moves from ridge to ridge between 1984 to 2015. See original post for animation of a lot more images.

 

By the start of this satellite time series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite, the frontier had reached the remote northwest corner of Rondônia. Intact forest is deep green, while cleared areas are tan (bare ground) or light green (crops, pasture, or occasionally, second-growth forest). Over the span of 12 years, roads and clearings pushed west-northwest from Buritis toward the Jaciparaná River. The deforested area along the road into Nova Mamoré expanded north-northeast all the way to the BR-346 highway.

By the start of this satellite time series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite, the frontier had reached the remote northwest corner of Rondônia. Intact forest is deep green, while cleared areas are tan (bare ground) or light green (crops, pasture, or occasionally, second-growth forest). Over the span of 12 years (2000-2012), roads and clearings pushed west-northwest from Buritis toward the Jaciparaná River. The deforested area along the road into Nova Mamoré expanded north-northeast all the way to the BR-346 highway. See original post for animation and more images.

The state of Rondônia in western Brazil — once home to 208,000 square kilometers of forest (about 51.4 million acres), an area slightly smaller than the state of Kansas — has become one of the most deforested parts of the Amazon. In the past three decades, clearing and degradation of the state’s forests have been rapid: 4,200 square kilometers cleared by 1978; 30,000 by 1988; and 53,300 by 1998. By 2003, an estimated 67,764 square kilometers of rainforest—an area larger than the state of West Virginia—had been cleared.

The World’s Heat Map (also wind map)

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive, Photo May 20, 2016

I used to awe at this genius’ work pulling off a live interactive map that shows the latest (not by minute though) winds blowing around the world. And there are actually more gems to be found here, when I read about India’s recent record breaking temperature of 51 C. Here below is in the middle of the night in Asia, when Beijing was at a cool 15.8C while most of India was approaching 40C.

The Temperature Map captured on earth.nullschool.net at 3AM May 21, 2016 China local time

The Temperature Map captured on earth.nullschool.net at 3AM May 21, 2016 China local time

For precise positioning of major cities, you can wikipedia your city of interest and pinpoint the location by modifying the URL’s location coordinates, such as “…loc=116.383333,39.916667”

For instance, if you are trying to find Beijing, you’d enter the above coordinates value at the end following “loc=” as you will find the coordinates of Beijing by clicking this on Beijing’s wikipedia page 39°55′N 116°23′E which leads to this GeoHack page for Beijing.

 

GIF: Time Traveling in China by Dheera Venkatraman

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive, Photo May 18, 2016

Really amazed by this MIT scientist/photographer who has taken this to an artistic level, documenting the dramatic changes over the landscapes of many Chinese cities. There are more on his site here.

Pudong, Shanghai, circa 1920-2009

Pudong, Shanghai, circa 1920-2009, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

Shanghai via satellite, 1984-2012, (Google Earth)

Shanghai via satellite, 1984-2012, (Google Earth)

 

Lanzhou, China, circa 1930-2016,

Lanzhou, China, circa 1930-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

 

Chengdu, China, 1994-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

Chengdu, China, 1994-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

 

Guangzhou, China, circa 1970-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

Guangzhou, China, circa 1970-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

 

Yibin, China, circa 1940-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

Yibin, China, circa 1940-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

 

Guiyang, China, circa 1920-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

Guiyang, China, circa 1920-2016, (Unknown, Dheera Venkatraman)

Original post on ChinaFile.com

5.16 This Week in Numbers

Michael Data & Graphics, Photo May 15, 2016

Occupations of persons from the Panama Papers, via this awesome blog:

From Ian Bremmer via LinkedIn:

A good way to look at widening wealth gap in America

Average internet speed, megabytes per second
Singapore 98.5
Hong Kong 92.6
S Korea 79
Kuwait 76.5
Romania 71.6
US 53.5

On average, women earn 18% less than men. Not in the UAE though. Too bad women only make up 13% of the labor force there.

From others:

5.9 This Week in Numbers

Michael Data & Graphics, Photo May 10, 2016

Via McKinsey:

From Ian Bremmer via LinkedIn:

Most languages spoken
1 Papua New Guinea 839
2 Indonesia 707
3 Nigeria 526
4 India 454
5 US 422
6 China 300
7 Mexico 289
8 Cameroon 281

Firearm homicide rates: how US cities compare to the rest of the world

Peak British Empire (1921)

中国父母在纽约:2016悠悠择校的战略与战术小结

Michael Data & Graphics, Photo May 7, 2016

历时五个月的择校前的煎熬、研究学区学校做功课、填志愿和漫长的等待,我们终于在五月的第一个工作日获得了我们期待已久、梦寐以求的首选学校,迎来了一个轻松愉快的母亲节!下面简要回顾和总结一下我们身在异乡为人父母的一点择校经验:

以前都认为美国人家庭对孩子的教育基本是放羊(或放养),那真是大错特错了,一些富裕的家庭要么所在的学区是全美顶级的名校,要么捧着每年少则三万,多则大好几万的银子到私立,而且高级的私立学校不是说有钱就进的,孩子连同父母双方还要通过严苛的面试过程,可谓既富且贵的私塾。这个类型的学校不在我们考虑的范畴,等来生再分解。 Read More

5.2 This Week in Numbers

Michael Data & Graphics, Photo May 5, 2016

From Ian Bremmer via LinkedIn:

Delegates to date
Trump 1053
Sanders 1442
#MeaninglessStatistic

Hispanic eligible voters in US
1988: 7.7m
2000: 13.2
2008: 19.5
2016: 27.3

GIF: Dams on Yangtze (Three Gorges) and Euphrates

Michael Data & Graphics, Interactive, Photo May 2, 2016

NASA reminded me again of its satellite images of the Three Gorges Dam before and after the construction of the dam. Here below I dug up the before and after images and present in a simple GIF, watch for the tremendous expansion of the water surface on the Yangtze River and its numerous tributaries in this mountainous region:

Three Gorges Dam: 2000-2006 Views from Satellite (via NASA)

Three Gorges Dam: 2000-2006 Views from Satellite (via NASA)

Here below is another extreme case of changes, the human extraction of water largely contributing to the sudden shrinking of reservoir along the Euphrates River:

Shrinking of Qadisiyah Reservoir between 2006 and 2009 (via NASA)

Shrinking of Qadisiyah Reservoir between 2006 and 2009 (via NASA)

Scientists using the twin gravity-measuring satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)have found that a large portion of the Middle East lost freshwater reserves rapidly during the past decade. The research team observed the Tigris and Euphrates river basins—including parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran—and found that 117 million acre feet (144 cubic kilometers) of fresh water was lost from 2003 to 2009. That amount is roughly equivalent to the volume of the Dead Sea. About 60 percent of the loss was attributed to the pumping of groundwater from underground reservoirs.